masque de fer pignerol

According to Marcel Pagnol, it was with this letter that King Charles II asked his sister Henriette to announce to Louis XIV the arrest of the "valet Martin", who was later taken to Calais as suggested by the ambassador Colbert de Croissy. 19 November 1703 - Death of the masked prisoner, who is buried on 20 November at the cemetery of Saint-Paul under the name of Marchialy. It is to the same Carteret family that Henrietta of England sent her son (the future Charles II) during the civil war in 1646. Pagnol considers such a version "unacceptable" but all the same underlines the fact that the book was printed in Holland without any author's name, proving that the identity of the masked prisoner was still an important state secret in 1745, some 42 years after his death. Louis XIV, who respected the "blue blood" of the princes, probably did not have his brother buried in a communal cemetery after such a privileged prison regime. 1694 - The prison of Pignerol, threatened by a concentration of Italian troops, is evacuated. Un messager vient recueillir la déposition de Lauzun, puis repart en rendre compte à Louvois. In a socio-political context of persecution of Huguenots and famine, the plot was on a European scale. In Pignerol: Saint-Mars, who had a company of 70 men, was authorised by the King to requisition Mr de Pienne and his garrison. The essay was published for the first time in 1965 under the title Le Masque de fer (The Iron Mask), and updated in 1973, completed in particular with research on James de la Cloche, identified as the twin bearing this name in his youth. This letter was found in the archives of the Ministry of Affaires étrangères (Foreign Affairs). However, this letter provided little information on the identity of Roux de Marcilly and his occupations in London, only briefly referring to a military past. The prisoners on Sainte-Marguerite Island in the custody of Saint-Mars were "Dauger", a knight from Chézut, five or six Protestant ministers, and later Matthioli (1694). Even the turnkey (Antoine Rû) was with him throughout his captivity. Saint-Simon refers to Fagon, then chief physician to Louis XIV, who was accused of having deliberately bled Barbezieux excessively, leading to his death in 1701. Once released, Lauzun is forced to stay in the provinces, under the custody of a captain of the musketeers, and the King still forbids his marriage. Saint-Mars reported it to Louvois further to Fouquet's death. – Soudain, le vent tourne. On his deathbed, anxious to escape Catholic hell, he turned to Cardinals de Rohan and de Bissy, holding them responsible for everything. Yet according to Pagnol, carriers who did not speak the prisoner's language were chosen to prevent him from making revelations, which indicates that the prisoner was not Italian. Madame de Cavoye – Louis and Eustache Dauger de Cavoye's mother. On 11 March 1682, Saint-Mars reports to Louvois the recent settling in of the prisoners in Exilles, particularly the precautions taken to prevent any form of outside communication: He was given this surname following Marguerite Carteret's marriage to Jean de La Cloche. On his return to Paris on 27 August, on the orders of the King Louvois undertook complete renewal of the garrison of Pignerol,[53] involving the replacement of the regiment, the officers (Marcel Pagnol estimates their number to be between 30 and 40) and three governors: La Bretonnière, governor of the city, St-Jacques, governor of the Citadel, and the Major of the fort of La Pérouse. – En 1669 deux hommes s’infiltrent dans le personnel et tentent de récupérer des documents que Fouquet leur jette du haut de sa tour. However, the fortress of Sainte-Marguerite, unlike that in Exilles, was a real prison where Dauger was likely to meet other prisoners. – au premier étage de la tour médiane : le moine La Pierre et l’espion Dubreuil Then following the death of Fouquet in 1680, Louvois ordered the imprisonment of Dauger and La Rivière, while announcing their release. Mr du Palteau concludes by declaring: "I did not hear it said that he had a foreign accent," most probably eliminating the hypothesis of a foreigner such as Matthioli. Afterwards, James did not give up just yet. He suddenly died whereas he was supposed to have been arrested and taken to the Bastille on the King's orders. This threat probably explains the prisoner's transfer to the Bastille. In the documents at Marcel Pagnol's disposal, the name Eustache Dauger appears for the first time in the letter from Louvois dated 19 July 1669 (i.e. After Rouvigny's report, Roux, who had been warned of the danger, fled to Switzerland where he took refuge with his friend Balthazar at the end of February 1669. He was imprisoned as he was about to marry the Duchess of Montpensier, first cousin of Louis XIV. He spends time with the prisoner every day, for example when he accompanies Saint-Mars to serve the prisoner's meals, as Saint-Mars describes in a letter to Louvois in January 1696. This document shows that: Marcel Pagnol concludes that Saint-Mars, by thus concealing details which would reveal the importance of the prisoner, betrays the establishment of the official story that "he is only a valet". Vous n’avez jamais eu de meilleur serviteur que moi relativement à vos intérêts et à votre fortune. Louvois suggested that, in terms of cost, the captive did not fall into the meal category of a soldier or an officer, but that he would refund ". Major Rosarges signs the death certificate. Selon Madame de Sévigné qui assiste à la rencontre, il a été beaucoup question de Nicolas Fouquet. Yet on 13 July, Lionne informed Croissy that "after Roux's execution it is no longer necessary to bring Martin to France". Vallot – he died suddenly on 16 July 1673. It is most probably the biography of Louis XIV by Philippe Erlanger, published in 1960. Marcel Pagnol also indicates the existence of a real valet named Martin who served Roux: he was found in London when Roux was tracked down and said he did not know anything about the plot led by his former master. the day after the arrest of the valet Martin) announcing to governor Saint-Mars the due arrival of the prisoner in Pignerol and stipulating that "he is only a valet". Voltaire also wonders about the Italian name he was given, most probably referring to the death certificate. But Fargues, who at the time of the Paris Revolt incurred the wrath of the Court and in particular of Cardinal Mazarin, had chosen to discreetly withdraw and be forgotten. 1644 – The Carteret family, residing on the island of Jersey, adopt a 6-year-old child brought to them by Lady Perronette, who is then raised by their daughter Marguerite. The prisoner may rest under a false name in a monastery or a royal chapel. Marcel Pagnol states that Eustache Dauger de Cavoye died in detention in 1679, without however quoting any document proving this. – En 1674, Lauzun, qui lui n’a pas de secret à monnayer (pour l’instant du moins) tente de s’évader. He is mentioned in some correspondence following the trial of Roux. Marcel Pagnol reckons that Charles II is the one who arranged contact between the twin and the conspirator Roux: Charles II is supposed to have met the twin in early 1669 (cf previous chapter). Eustache Dauger de Cavoye was the brother of Louis Oger de Cavoye, who was King Louis XIV's Chief Marshall of Lodgings in 1677. This is a tale, Mémoires secrets pour servir à l’histoire de la Perse (Confidential Memoirs Serving as a History of Persia) published in Amsterdam in 1745, using names from One Thousand and One Nights: while his death is announced, the Count of Vermandois, son of Louis XIV and the duchess Louise de La Vallière, is taken prisoner and masked by Louis XIV for having slapped the Dauphin.[57][84]. The prisoner was transferred from Exilles to the Islands in an oilcloth litter, within which he was protected from inquisitive looks, with eight Italian carriers being brought in from Turin. In the Questions sur l'Encyclopédie (1770), he declares that wearing the mask was enforced, including during medical examinations, for fear that "an overly striking resemblance […] would be recognized" and quotes the apothecary of the Bastille's account, to whom the prisoner is thought to have told his age shortly before his death, saying he was "around sixty years old". In 1644, when Queen Henrietta of France, sister of Louis XIII, is about to give birth to Henrietta of England, the midwife Lady Perronette was sent to England by Cardinal Mazarin to assist, taking the twin with her in order to hide him abroad, which was the actual purpose of her journey. Marcel Pagnol emphasises the urgent nature of this ministerial journey, initially planned for 20 September, moved forward to 15 August, and finally taking place on 8 August (the journey from Paris to Briançon took five days and five nights in a mail-coach) in the delicate European context of the Treaty of Dover. [17],[18] Marcel Pagnol's believed in James’ good faith though, admitting that he sincerely believed he was the bastard son of Charles II.[19]. [8] Later, finding a striking resemblance between himself and Charles II when seeing his portrait,[9] he was convinced of being the King's son and wished to be legally recognised, like two other illegitimate sons who hence got the dukedom. He is even said to have given two audiences to Roux de Marcilly, and some French provinces were promised to England after the fall of Louis XIV 308. Marcel Pagnol deduces that this journey consisted of a genuine investigation into the socio-political situation in Pignerol, long conversations with the prisoner, as well as a visit to the ambassador of Turin[46] on Sunday 10 August. À partir de 1674, l’un des deux valets de Fouquet (le dénommé Champagne) meurt en prison. It could be a distorted spelling of Count Matthioli's name. Regularly questioned by his son (the dauphin, Louis XVI's father),[68] his minister the Duke of Choiseul, his mistress Madame de Pompadour, and his valet Mr de la Borde, Louis XV proved elusive and refused to answer. Antonin Nompar de Caumont, Duke of Lauzun - serviceman and French courtier, appointed Lieutenant General of the Armies in 1670. 1668 – James de la Cloche takes his novitiate at the Jesuit Institute of Rome, introducing himself as "Prince Stuart", son of King Charles II. Skeptical at first, Rouvigny soon decided to arrange a dinner in the honour of Roux, aiming to hear his plans: During this dinner, Morland asked Roux a series of questions prepared in advance by de Rouvigny who, hidden in a cabinet, wrote down all the answers. Pagnol then quotes stories extracted from the Memoirs of Saint-Simon, depicting the King in all his deceit. During the first month of captivity, correspondence between Louvois and Saint-Mars testifies to the continuous and scrupulous monitoring of the prisoner's health (he was seriously ill in September 1669), reminding Marcel Pagnol of an old saying according to which "when a twin is sick, it does not take long for the other to perish". Pagnol quotes Constantin de Renneville, imprisoned at the Bastille in 1702, i.e. Voltaire was imprisoned at the Bastille from May 1717 to April 1718, i.e. Renneville gives physical descriptions without mentioning a mask: the prisoner would have been asked to turn around so as not to be recognised. French journalist Elie Fréron published letters in the periodic l’Année littéraire in 1768. This is how Marcel Pagnol believes James was told his true identity, and was sent to Roux who was plotting a massive conspiracy against Louis XIV,[31] as all Charles II's government was well aware. Fouquet et Lauzun jouissent cette année-là d’un régime de semi-liberté et l’on peut voir l’ancien Surintendant parcourir les rues de la citadelle en compagnie de sa famille. Marcel Pagnol concludes that Louis XIV discovered important information about Roux de Marcilly's plot in the letters from Charles II to his sister Henrietta:[54] Protestants may have been plotting within the garrison and preparing the prisoner's escape. Furthermore, Marcel Pagnol sets out an analogy between the health status of "Dauger" and Louis XIV, involving feverishness and various chronic illnesses. He bases this on reports from Saint-Mars to Louvois[41] on the one hand, and extracts from Henri Druon's "L’Education des Princes"[42] on the other. He was the governor of the prisons of Pignerol (1665-1681), Exilles (1681-1687), the Lérins Islands, and finally the Bastille (1698 until his death in 1708). He travels to his new post with his free company and Dauger, his sole prisoner, transported in a completely covered carriage. In London, at the start of May 1668, Sir Samuel Morland, a diplomat and ancient member of the Parliament, earned the trust of Roux de Marcilly. This hypothesis, according to which the prisoner is thought to be Louis XIV's elder brother, is not based on any proof, on the other hand Pagnol does not put forward any information that would demonstrate it is wrong.[78][79]. Pignerol is a small town located on the slopes of the Alps, in what is now Piedmont. By placing James's birth at the time of Louis XIV's, i.e. The fort of Exilles was not a prison. In Sainte-Marguerite: men on sentry duty watched the sea and were ordered to shoot at any boats which came close to the coast. Saint-Mars was to threaten him with death should he speak of ", The minister asked for the construction of a real strong room (not an underground dungeon) even though some cells were available in Pignerol. Eustache Dauger: he was introduced under this name by Louvois who announced to Saint-Mars the arrival of the prisoner in Pignerol in July 1669, explaining that ". [10] Marguerite (or probably her father Sir Carteret) approached the King on his behalf, but the latter did not acknowledge him. Marcel Pagnol explained this by the fact that a high amount of money was secretly given to Charles II by Louis XIV. Therefore, "Dauger" and La Rivière did not appear on any prison register. In August 1670, Louvois completed the route from Paris (or Versailles) to Briançon in just five days on his way to Pignerol. Following Fouquet's death in 1680, he was imprisoned alongside Dauger and died in Exilles in 1687 without ever having been accused or condemned. On 12 May 1681, Louvois writes to Saint-Mars: "Regarding the two [prisoners] in the lower tower, you only have to mark them down with this name, without putting anything else." Doctor Séron is thought to have died after locking himself in his bedroom for several hours, screaming about his guilt for "what he had done to his master. Le Masque de fer n’existe pas encore à cette époque (sa légende naîtra quelques années plus tard), mais celui qui le deviendra un jour compte parmi ces neuf prisonniers. This false announcement of Dauger's release supported the idea that "he is only a valet" in so far as he would be released the day after his master's death. He informed him of this as he was lying on his deathbed, after the last rites, indulging in speeches and outbursts of great hypocrisy. After having declared that he would not oppose her marriage to the Duke of Lauzun, the King had it cancelled the day before the ceremony planned for 18 December 1670. The King and the cardinal thus planned the birth to ensure that the Queen's bedroom would be "evacuated" after the first birth. For the rest of his life the prisoner had a doctor at his disposal: Louvois authorized Saint-Mars to call one if needed without prior authorisation. In spite of his long meetings with the Duke of York and State Secretary Md Arlington, Roux said he was disappointed by the lack of cooperation of England, reluctant to launch the first attacks on France. The dungeon: it was in 1669 that the first dungeon of the masked prisoner was built in Pignerol, yet Matthioli was imprisoned only ten years later. Désormais les événements vont se précipiter. Although he was popular with "many beautiful ladies" (Pagnol describes him as a womaniser), Barbezieux is denounced by Saint Simon for being immature and irresponsible, apparently too young to inherit one of the most important ministries. Letter from Lagrange-Chancel, imprisoned on the islands of Sainte-Marguerite from 1719 to 1722. At the end of his letter, he adds that Matthioli's "rags" […] ", In his letter of 11 May 1681 to the War Administrator du Chaunoy, Louvois mentions ", According to Iung (Vol. Charles II promised the throne to James and a generous reward to the Jesuits. Eustache Dauger de Cavoye - Brother of Louis Oger de Cavoye, Chief Marshall of Lodgings of King Louis XIV. Transfer to the Bastille: the King did not take action regarding Saint-Mars's request to have "safe" accommodation on the way to the Bastille. Eventually he would answer Madame de Pompadour and say he was the "secretary of an Italian Prince…"[69] thus referring to Matthioli. Pagnol obtained photostats of Charles II's letters through the archivist Father at the. Lamotte-Guérin, who therefore had access to the prison records, gives the date of the prisoner's arrest (1669). [63] Pagnol is apparently uncertain of what he knew (or did not know).[64]. Mystère. Mais n’anticipons pas. He specifies that he made sure the dishes, the corners of the bedroom and other places where the prisoner could have written were scrupulously and systematically inspected. Comparing the letters from Charles II to Father Oliva with other letters addressed to his sister Henrietta of England,[16] two graphologist experts consulted by Pagnol are positive: the letters sent to Father Oliva are fake, making James a fraud. [23] de Rouvigny denounced an accomplice called Balthazar based in Geneva, and also named the Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo in Spain, King of England Charles II (first cousin of Louis XIV) and his brother the Duke of York as being well aware of the plot and linked with Roux.[24]. To support his theory according to which Louis XIV supposedly ordered his own brother's imprisonment for life, harshening the sentence by making him wear a mask, Pagnol recounts several anecdotes from the childhood, reign and personal life of the "Sun King", revealing a vain, cruel and deceitful side, going so far as to suggest several orders to murder certain figures by poisoning them (in particular the minister Louvois, see section "Those who knew"). Le Secret du Masque de fer (The Secret of the Iron mask) is a historical essay by French novelist Marcel Pagnol, who identified the famous prisoner in the iron mask as the twin brother of Louis XIV, born after him and imprisoned for life in 1669 for having conspired against the King. Marcel Pagnol recreated, through various correspondences and his own interpretation of them, the chronology of the arrest of the accomplice who would later be known as the famous Man in the Iron Mask. He also compared some of the detention conditions with those of other prisoners such as Fouquet, Lauzun and Matthioli, who had not benefited from the construction of a new cell. Marcel Pagnol also notes, in the correspondence between Louvois (later Barbezieux) and Saint-Mars, what he calls a "machination" in the form of a double red herring regarding the prisoner's identity: On the one hand, the official version that "he is only a valet", as when derisory expenses are mentioned;[44] On the other hand, false information about a transfer of Matthioli with Saint-Mars to Exilles,[45] which fuelled the widespread theory taking Matthioli to be the prisoner who would later be masked in Sainte-Marguerite then at the Bastille. Charles II – Louis XIV (his first cousin) secretly paid him an important allowance over a long period, without any obvious reason. Then in 1679 Louvois is thought. The prisoner spent 34 years in captivity in four different prisons (Pignerol, Exilles, the island of Sainte-Marguerite, then the Bastille), in the custody of the same general staff, being Saint-Mars and his lieutenants. Du Junca was the second in command at the prison after the governor. – Peu après, la condition carcérale de Fouquet s’adoucit. This timeline given by Pagnol appears quite questionable since in 1669, Roux had already been denounced for several months. He refers to the curiosity of his cousin Blainvilliers (Saint-Mars's first cousin) who disguises himself as a sentry in order to observe the prisoner under his bedroom window, a stopover by the prisoner in Palteau during transfer from Sainte-Marguerite to the Bastille, and farmers’ accounts of having seen the prisoner sitting at the same table as Saint-Mars in his dining room. Pagnol considers him to have been the main initiator of the widespread curiosity regarding the mysterious prisoner. which ensured Louis XIV's posthumous glory. Pagnol specifies that Lauzun remained under very close surveillance when released: he was required to stay in the provinces under the custody of a certain Mr de Maupertuis, captain of the musketeers and Saint-Mars's friend. – au second étage de la tour d’angle : Nicolas Fouquet et ses valets Champagne et La Rivière Pagnol then cited another evidence put forward by. Pagnol does not give any precise date as to when James approached King Charles II, doubtless through the Carterets. 5 September 1638, he would only be eight years younger than Charles II, born in 1630. Indeed, a real Eustache Dauger actually existed, as Martin, Roux de Marcilly's valet. 5 September 1638 – Louis XIV born in Saint-Germain en Laye. Saint-Mars and his lieutenants (his cousin Blainvilliers and his two nephews Formanoir): Pagnol considers that it is to their unbroken discretion that they owed their fortune, estimated at 5 billion francs (1960 value), including three seigniorial lands, ownership of which gave them noble status. 14 years after the masked prisoner's death, and again in 1726. It was at this point, according to Marcel Pagnol, that La Rivière became the valet of "Dauger". 1244), Saint-Mars received in Exilles, for the two prisoners, 2190, Pagnol gives the measurements of the dungeon of Sainte-Marguerite, estimating its cost of construction, in addition to the cost of Saint-Mars's accommodation, at 7200, For the islands’ dungeon, Saint-Mars obtained credit of 5300. Louis de Formanoir, his second nephew, served in the cadets of the free company. Fouquet and Lauzun would communicate secretly through a hole dug between their cells. Following the letter from Louvois which De Vauroy received on 3 August, the prisoner Dauger arrived in Pignerol on 24 August, escorted by De Vauroy. […]", The Duke of Saint-Simon, memorialist (and Lauzun's brother-in-law), The two brothers-in-law[85] lived in Marly in a house where they shared a certain intimacy and Saint-Simon, according to what he says, had to "extract from him [Lauzun] stories of the past," among which most probably were those about the mysterious prisoner, based on his nocturnal conversations with Fouquet in Pignerol.[39]. On the other hand, Roux was much more confident about the massive support of Spain and Switzerland. In Exilles: two men on sentry duty who stood guard day and night had to report any attempt at outside communication. Pagnol obtained the letters of Charles II to his sister through the Foreign Affairs archives. In his letter to Saint-Mars on 19 July 1669 announcing the arrival of "Dauger" in Pignerol, Louvois set out instructions regarding the conditions of detention and treatment assigned to him. Un jour, ou plutôt une nuit, il parvient à s’introduire chez Fouquet, à l’étage au dessus, en empruntant un conduit de cheminée. He then had Lauzun imprisoned in Pignerol (where he stayed for ten years) in order to exchange his freedom against the principality of Dombes and the comté of Eu, which he bequeathed to the Duke of Maine, his illegitimate son from his affair with Madame de Montespan.

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